Thus, a semantic separation of 'organisers' from 'sponsors' is achieved via structuring the graphical layout in accordance with this simple principle of perceptual organisation. B is taken from Kazaa Media Desktop, where the law of proximity is used in designing the user interface of the popular peer-to-peer P2P software.
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As shown by the screen dump, the user can choose between P2P and web search. The group of radio buttons underneath are only associated with the P2P search and not the web search.
To signal this association to the user, the vertical row of radio buttons are placed comparatively closer to the P2P-search radio button. C is a typical textbook example, exemplifying how the law of proximity groups the items into 3 groups as opposed to 8 individual items. The law of similarity captures the idea that elements will be grouped perceptually if they are similar to each other.
In the "preferences window" of the Opera browser figure 2.
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A , colour is used to make the user group the menu items on the basis of their background colour. The grey background of the first four menu items thus "tie them together". Figure 2. Objects similar to each other thus tend to be seen as a unit. Edgar Rubin, a Danish psychologist, was the first to systematically investigate the figure-ground phenomenon. The phenomenon captures the idea that in perceiving a visual field, some objects take a prominent role the figures while others recede into the background the ground.
The visual field is thus divided into these two basic parts. This effect is often used by smart logo makers, as figure 3. A, B, and C suggest: The logo of visitnorway. Similarly, the logo of the Gnome Desktop Environment figure 3. Thurman Email: ude. Hongjing Lu Email: ude. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
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Associated Data Supplementary Materials iicon. Supplement 1. Supplement 2. Abstract Although there is evidence for specialization in the human brain for processing biological motion per se, few studies have directly examined the specialization of form processing in biological motion perception. Keywords: form perception , biological motion , classification image , Bayesian model , top-down. Introduction The human visual system is exquisitely tuned to perceive and understand the actions of others.
Experiment 1 The first experiment was designed to investigate how human observers process dynamic form-based stimuli and resolve ambiguity originated from conflicting form cues for biological and nonbiological objects. Participants Fifty-two participants were recruited through the Department of Psychology subject pool at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA , and were given course credit for their participation.
Materials and method Stimuli were created using Matlab MathWorks, Natick, MA and displayed using the Psychophysics Toolbox Brainard, ; Pelli, on a calibrated monitor with a gray background 60 Hz, background luminance Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Analysis To compute classification images, multiple linear regression was performed with subject decisions serving as the response variable and the locations of the elements on each trial serving as the predictor variable. Bayesian observer model The observer model Figure 2 contains two modules that implement local Bayesian inference based on either position cues alone, i.
Figure 2. Human results The mean proportion of responses consistent with position cues was not significantly different from 0. Figure 3. Experiment 2 When we track moving objects in the environment, such as a human walking, we move our eyes to keep the object centered on the fovea. Participants Twenty-four participants were recruited through the Department of Psychology subject pool at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA , and were given course credit for their participation.
Materials and methods The experimental setup and testing conditions were similar to Experiment 1 , including the procedure for generating hybrid stimuli. Figure 4. Bayesian observer model We used the same model as described in Experiment 1 , but here we manipulated the priors associated with each stimulus direction during simulations. Results Mean behavioral results are displayed in Figure 4 , in which the results of model simulations are represented as dashed lines. Experiment 3 The second experiment revealed that background motion modulated perception to a similar degree for biological and nonbiological stimuli, suggesting that the learned priors were of a similar magnitude.
Materials and methods The experimental setup and testing conditions were nearly identical to Experiment 2. Figure 5. Results Mean behavioral results are displayed in Figure 5 , in which the results of model simulations are represented as dashed lines. Discussion In the current experiments, we created dynamic stimuli designed to tap specifically into form-based processes of visual analysis by limiting the usefulness of local motion cues.
Supplementary Material Click here to view. Supplement 1 Click here for additional data file. Supplement 2 Click here for additional data file. Commercial relationships: none. Corresponding authors: Steven M. Thurman; Hongjing Lu. Email: sthurman ucla.
Form and shape perception
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Forming a Perception - The Peak Performance Center
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