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Fischer, Joel and Kevin J. Corcoran Greene, Roberta R.

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Social Work with the Aged and their Families 3rd ed. Grinnell, Richard M. Larry D. Watson; Richard A. Hoefer November 5, Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders. SAGE Publications. Davis Encyclopedia of Social Work 20th ed. Peter J. Popple, Philip R. Ragg, D. Mark Hoboken, N. J: Wiley. Ralph Brody; Murali Nair November 21, Reamer, Frederic G. Amaro maintains that the scientific-humanist profile in Social Work is present in a professional construction based on ethical principles, different from a bureaucratic profile that is focused on established norms.

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For Amaro, social workers consider the profession in its specificity in attending to needs and confronting social ill-health, by providing access to services and benefits, articulating needs and resources. In this sense, the political dimension of the action is articulated to the professional dimension and to those who adopt a perspective of ethical responsibility and of consideration for needs.

Social Work has in its relational dimension a general political dimension concerning the defense of rights and justice, and a dimension of care, in part because it interacts with those who are the most exploited and dominated. Amaro finds that the very imaginary of social workers leads them to a representation of the profession as that of a professional who works for social justice and human rights for the construction of a more human society and not only as a technocrat. Faleiros criticizes abstract humanism in Social Work as a form of idealist reductionism, while recalling that the humanist project in Marx emphasizes human realization as inter-subjective and socially-historically collective.

From the perspective of critical Social Work, care is not reduced only to a style of a personal relationship, but is built as a value that is aggregated to professional work and is part of a relationship of inclusion, which involves listening to and recognizing the other and her alterity as a form of protection and quality of care. Care must be present both from a clinical perspective and in the everyday institutional and professional relationships. Nevertheless, it is not confused with a clinical process and much less with a cure, because its objective is axiological, focused on the construction of a society in which respect for the other, the environment and time is essential, which is not only the time of each one but the time of life WALDOW, and in a recognition of the need to have an understanding of what is human in the struggle for human rights BOFF, Care requires an interdependence between the person who provides care and the person who is cared for, because the human relation of care is based on exchange, communi cation and mutual contribution that is established between the professional or the technician and the public served AGICH, This exchange takes places independently from the condition of the one who is cared for, even in a situation of fragility, because even a look transmits the communication of the being in a fragile situation and the exchange of looks can provide more or less comfort in this condition.

At the same time, it is necessary to consider that looks have cultural meanings, and are part of support policies, of socio-economic histories. It is essential to articulate the relationships between the subjects and the structure with the historic dynamic of construction of a just society that can confront the capitalist crisis of unemployment, lack of care and of democracy itself. In reality, democracy is the affirmation of the subject as sovereign, as Castoriadis , p. That is, care is the articulation between the subject and conditions in a collective form with the construction and recognition of meanings that are formed in the culture and that are, simultaneously appropriated and questioned by the subject.

Political and critical care is inscribed in a perspective of resignification of the subject and of structure in the co-construction of the democratic relationship between the professional and the public served based on citizenship. It does not involve another illusion of the mediocrity of service and of individualism, but of a process that must be articulated to the objective conditions and strategies for strengthening ethics, criticism and change, respecting and emphasizing the expressions of the subjects in relation to the guarantee of their rights.

Returning to Castoriadis , p. All of our acts find their effective condition for possibility, both concerning their materiality, as well as their meaning, in the fact that we are social beings living in a social world that is what it is because it is instituted in this way and not another. In synthesis, care is a relationship in which individualism or solidarity can predominate PLASTINO, , even with proper attention to the personal and social needs and of how the users or public feel and express themselves.

From the perspective of individualism, the person served and the professional are considered as if they are isolated from the context, and from a perspective of solidarity they are considered as subjects who are socially and historically located in relations of power and knowledge that are relevant to the alterity and diversity in the effectuation of human rights in the exercise of democracy, participation and equity. Buenos Aires: Humanitas, , p. Trabajo Social Latinoamericano. Buenos Aires: Espacio Editorial, Paris: L'Herne, BOFF, L. Saber cuidar. Acesso em: 28 jan.

Contemporary challenges for social work profession

Paris: Gallimard, An Empowering Profession. Boston: Pearson, The Incomplete Revolution. Adapting to Women's New Roles. Cambrige: Polity Press, Acesso em: 30 jan. Metodologia e ideologia do trabalho social. New York: Columbia University Press, Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, Paris: L'Herne, , p. MARX, K. Mexico: Siglo XXI, Manuscritos de Rio de Janeiro: Record, Paris: Payot et Rivages, , p. Presented Aug. Approved Oct. Vicente de Paula Faleiros vicentefaleiros terra.

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Challenges to care in Social Work: a critical perspective The question that guides this article refers to the relationship between care and Social Work from the emancipatory perspective of empowerment, such as changes in power relations and the construction of subjectifcation. Institutions and care Care presupposes a complex relationship between professionals, family, public and institutional context in various and even adverse conditions in the dynamic of power. The critical perspectives of feminism and human rights The break with an "assistentialist" philanthropic view of care is made explicit by two significant movements: the feminist and that for human rights, which understand that care is articulated to historic human needs, therefore, to human life.

Care and the political relationship of responsibility Care as a political relationship of rights presupposes its insertion in the emancipatory professional relationship, in a complex combination of ethical responsibility with social and political inclusion, in the consideration of personal and subjective dimensions and the valorization of the human and humanity. Capitalism and the lack of attention to needs By "capitalist lack of care" we understand the "integration" of subjects to a fragmented and bureaucratic labor process, offering the minimal living conditions and to obtain profit, or exercise domination, which considers resignation a "value".

He maintains: It is easy to proclaim constitutions on paper, the right of every citizen to education, to work, and above all to a minimum of the means of subsistence. Thus he affirms: Among the causes of despair which induce nervous, very excitable persons, passionate beings with deep feelings, to seek death, I discovered as the predominant factor the maltreatment, the injustices, the secret punishments, which hard parents and superiors inflict on persons dependent on them.

Care and professional relations In the realm of Social Work, the question of care is often confused with adaptive service, which was mentioned at the beginning of this article. How to cite this article. Management needs — together with political requests for more documented and effective social work — often lead to a focus on evidence-based knowledge production and research instead of other research approaches.

Social Work Profession: Political Context

Politicians focus on tools to measure the effects of political decisions and to explain them to citizens. Research areas and academic needs do not always converge with the needs and requirements of social work practice. The demand for publication in peer-reviewed periodicals with detailed and traditional criteria for research, content and article structure may conflict with the needs for information in practice.